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  Scots who have made their Mark at home and abroad       Some Examples:                                                                              part I
I can only make room here for a small portion of notable examples of Scots who have made their mark on the world. For every name chosen, there are fifty that could have rightly replaced them. To get a better idea of just how remarkable are the achievements of men and women from this small nation let us consider some statistics: People of Scottish ancestry make up less than one half of one percent of the Earth’s population 4.3% of America's population are of Scottish extraction 11% of Nobel Prizes have been won by people of Scottish ancestry 75% of American presidents had Scottish blood in their veins
Scotland's Hall of Fame ... Want to add your nominations?                                      Robert Adam (1728 - 1792)                                      An architect noted for his elegant terraces in the New Town of Edinburgh,                                      together with many fine public buildings and also much Georgian                                      development in London.                     Sir William Arrol (1839 - 1913) Engineer. Responsible for the Forth Rail Bridge and the replacement Tay Rail Bridge which were the two most substantial bridges in the world of their time and are still in constant use today. Also worked on Tower Bridge in London.                                                                                                       John Logie Baird (1888 - 1946)                                                                    Engineer. Inventor of the television and later developed ideas                                                                   such as colour, 3-D and large screen television. Also took out                                                                   a patent on fibre-optics, a technology now used to carry many                                                                  telephone calls and traffic on the internet.                                                                                 Sir James Barrie (1860 - 1937)                                                                                 Author and Playright. Best known                                                                                 for the creation of Peter Pan, the                                                                                 boy who would not grow up. Alexander Graham Bell (1847 - 1922) Born in Edinburgh. Having emigrated to Canada and later the USA, Bell became the inventor of the telephone in 1876.                                                                                 Rev. Patrick Bell (1800 - 1869)                                                                                 In 1828, he invented the reaping machine which was a                                                                                  direct precursor of the modern combine harvester. As a                                                                                 man of God, he did not take out a patent, believing that                                                                                 his invention should benefit all mankind.  Between 1831                                                                                 and 1834, William Manning, Obed Hussey and Cyrus                                                                                 McCormick took advantage of his altruism.                                                                                   Joseph Black (1728 - 1799) Chemist. Professor of Anatomy and Chemistry in Glasgow University (1756) and then Professor of Medicine and Chemistry in Edinburgh (1766). Developed the concept of "Latent Heat" and discovered Carbon Dioxide ("Fixed Air"). Regarded as the Father of Quantitative Chemistry.                                                      Sir Thomas Makdougall Brisbane (1773 - 1860)                 Soldier and Astronomer, born in Largs, Ayrshire. Governor-General of the                 Australian state of New South-Wales. Set up an observatory and catalogued                 more than 7000 stars. The city of Brisbane (Australia) is named after him.                                                                       Alexander Crum Brown (1838 - 1922)             Organic chemist, born in Edinburgh. He studied in London and Leipzig before            returning to Edinburgh in 1863, holding the chair of Chemistry, which now            bears his name, until his death. He devised the system of representing chemical            compounds in diagrammatic form, with connecting lines representing bonds.                                                           Robert the Bruce (1274 - 1329)                    Crowned King of Scotland in 1306, he defeated the English                    king Edward II at Bannockburn in 1314. His victories                    assured Scotland of its independence.  (see more in my                    web page “securing the nation”)  Link to the page                                                                                Robert Burns (1759 - 1796)            Poet and Writer. Amongst many other works he wrote "Auld Lang Syne"            which is now sung world-wide at the end of functions and particularly at            the end of the year. The Scots celebrate "Burn's Night" on the 25th            January.                                                                        Andrew Carnegie (1835 - 1918)                             U.S. iron and steel magnate and great philanthropist. Born to                             to poor parents in Dunfermline, in Fife, his story is truly one                             of rags to riches. He gave a considerable proportion of his                             fortune to the benefit of Scotland, including substantial                             educational endowments and 10,000 church organs. Altogether                             his charitable donations totaled nearly 400 million dollars. James Chalmers (1782 - 1853)  Dundee Inventor, Bookseller and Newspaper publisher. Invented the adhesive postage stamp, which made Rowland Hill's Penny Postal service a practical proposition.                                                                                     Saint Columba (c. 521 - 597)                                                        An Irish missionary who founded a monastery on                                                        the Island of Iona in 563 in an attempt to convert                                                        the Picts. Regarded as Scotland's second Patron                                                        Saint after St. Andrew. Billy Connolly (1942 - ) Glasgow-born comedian and TV personality known as "The Big Yin". Appeared in the U.S. situation- comedy "Head of the Class".                                                                                                                                                                                  Rev. Alexander Forsyth (1769 - 1848) Inventor of the percussion cap. Fond of game shooting, he realised the major problem with the flint-lock gun was its unreliability in damp conditions. The percussion cap ignited an enclosed charge when struck by a hammer. This was later developed into the modern bullet. William Ged (1690 - 1749) Printer, goldsmith and the inventor of stereotyping and the 'lost wax' process of metal casting used for reproducing delicate designs, especially in the jewellery trade.                                        Thomas Graham (1805 - 1869) Born in Glasgow and educated at Glasgow University. Formulated "Graham's Law" on the diffusion of gases. Father of colloid chemistry.          James Gregory (1638 - 1675) Inventor of the reflecting telescope, which was developed three years later by Isaac Newton.                                                                             David Hume (1711 - 1776) Philosopher, agnostic and leading figure of the Scottish Enlightenment and Western philosophy, Hume wrote on human nature, politics and introduced the concept of social history. As a philosopher, historian, economist, and essayist he is known especially for his philosophical empiricism and scepticism.                                                                                               Elsie Inglis (1864 - 1917)                    A leading surgeon and suffragette. She improved maternity facilities and                   fought for better healthcare for women in Scotland. She set up a maternity                   hosptial in Edinburgh staffed only by women. During the First World War,                   she set up hospitals for the troops in Serbia and Russia.                                                                                                    John Paul Jones (1747 - 1792)                      Born in Dumfriesshire, he joined the navy and spent time                      in Russia and France during the French Revolution. Most                      notably he established the U.S. Navy.                                                                                                   John Knox (1505 - 1572) Churchman and father of the Protestant Reformation in Scotland, whereby the Roman Catholic church was replaced by a disestablished, democratic, presbyterian Church of Scotland, founded on Calvanist principles. Bitterly opposed by the catholic Mary Queen of Scots.                                                            Eric Henry Liddell (1902 - 1945) Scottish athlete, rugby union international player, and missionary, who was forced to choose between his religious beliefs and competing in an Olympic race. Despite this, he still won Gold and Bronze Medals in the 1924 Olympics. His life is remembered in the 1981 film "Chariots of Fire".                                                                        Sir Thomas Lipton (1850 - 1931) Grocer and entrepreneur. Born in Port Glasgow, Lipton revolutionised the retail grocery trade, developing many marketing techniques which are used by supermarkets today. He ensured supplies by buying, for example, tea plantations in Sri Lanka. He quickly became a millionaire, enabling him to challenge consistently but unsuccessfully for the Americas Cup (yachting), he also started the World Cup in football (soccer) in 1910. He left a substantial benefaction to the City of Glasgow.                                                    David Livingstone (1813 - 1873)                          Explorer and medical missionary. First white man to                          travel the length of Lake Tanganyika, discovered                          Victoria Falls and set out to discover the source of                          the Nile, but died before acheiving his aim. When                          Henry Stanley was sent to look for Livingstone, he                          uttered the famous greeting "Dr Livingstone, I presume".
Famous Scots Part II
James Boswell (1740 - 1795)  Biographer and Traveller. Although a lawyer by profession, Boswell travelled widely in Europe, writing accounts as he went in his distinctive style. Perhaps his best known work described his journey with Dr. Samuel Johnson to the Scottish Highlands & Islands.
James Andrew Broun-Lindsay (Marquis of Dalhousie) (1812 - 1860) Governor-General of India. Carried out the peaceful annexation of the Punjab. Organised government across all departments; railways, roads, irrigation. Opened the Ganges Canal.
James Bruce (1730 - 1794) Explorer, born in Stirlingshire. Discovered the source of the Blue Nile in 1770. Was congratulated by the French, but the English did not believe him.
John Buchan (Baron Tweedsmuir) (1875 - 1940) Author, biographer and politician. Perhaps best known for "The Thirty-Nine Steps". Was also a member of parliament and Governor-General of Canada.
Thomas Carlyle (1795 - 1881)  Writer and literary critic. Wrote on a diversity of topics from the French Revolution to Oliver Cromwell. Became rector of Edinburgh University in 1866.
James (Jim) Clark (1936 - 1968) Twice world champion racing driver and won seven Grand prix  races in a row, twenty-five in all, breaking the previous record of twenty-four.
George Cleghorn (1716 - 1794) Army surgeon who discovered that quinine bark acted as a cure for Malaria, a form of which was endemic in Britain at that time.
Sean Connery (1930 - ) Actor. Perhaps best known as James Bond, but more recent roles have included "The Untouchables", for which he won an Oscar and the "Hunt for Red October". Also an accomplished amateur golfer.
  Washington's talents and sent him to resist the French. Thus he was an important figure in American History and has been called the "Grandfather of the United States".
Kenneth Grahame (1859 - 1932) Author. His best known work is "The Wind in the Willows", later dramatised by A.A. Milne as "Toad of Toad Hall".
The Graham name appears often in the annals of Scottish military history, notably by these two :-
John Graham of Claverhouse, 1st Viscount Dundee (1648– 89) “Bonny Dundee” of the well known song raised the Highlands for James VII culminating in his famous victory at Killiecrankie. Mortally wounded, his success  could not be followed through.           
James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose (1612 – 1650) His "spectacular" victories, which took his opponents by surprise, are remembered in military history for their tactical brilliance. Supported the royalists in the civil wars, executed on their defeat.
           Neil Gunn (1891 - 1973)   Novelist, born in Caithness. One of the foremost novelists of the twentieth century Scottish literary renaissance. Best known for "The Silver Darlings" and "Highland River".
Douglas Haig, 1st Earl Haig (1861 - 1928) Field Marshall. Commanded the allied troops on the Western Front during the First World War. Later criticised for conduct of the campaign because of the very high casualty figures. Founded the Earl Haig Fund for the assistance of disabled ex- servicemen (poppy appeal).
James Hutton (1726 - 1797) Father of modern Geology. His theory of Uniformitarianism was the basis of the explanation of the geological history of the earth, which had in his words "no vestige of a beginning, no concept of an end". Published his "Theory of the Earth" in 1785.
James VI (1566 - 1625) Son of the Catholic Mary Queen of Scots, who had been brought up a Prestbyterian. In 1603, on the death of Queen Elizabeth I, he acceded to the  English throne as James I. Although this "Union of the Crowns" resulted in James being King of both countries, the countries remained separate for another 104 years.
William Kidd (Captain Kidd) (1645 - 1701) Infamous pirate and privateer, born in Greenock, Renfrewshire. He traded a small merchant fleet from New York. Fought as a privateer to protect Anglo- American trade routes in the West Indies and in 1691 was rewarded by New York City. Employed by the British Navy to stamp out piracy in the Indian Ocean, but instead became one of them. Surrendered in Boston in 1699, transported to London, tried and hanged.
Sir Harry Lauder (1870 - 1950) Singer and Music Hall Entertainer. Came from a poor family to become a world-famous entertainer. Did much to foster an image of Scots as kilt- wearing, whisky drinking and careful with money. Well loved at home and in the U.S.A. for songs such as "Roamin' in the Gloamin'" and "A wee Doch an Dorus".
James Lind (1716 - 1794) Scottish physician and pioneer of naval hygiene in the Royal Navy. By conducting the first ever clinical trial,[1] he developed the theory that citrus fruits cured scurvy.   His work advanced the practice of preventive medicine and improved nutrition.
Joseph Lister (1827 - 1912) A surgeon who pioneered the use of antiseptics and thereby dramatically reduced the number of post-opertive deaths due to infection.
Sir William Fairbairn (1789 - 1874) Born in Kelso, he became an engineer. He developed the idea of using tubular steel as a construction material, which was much stronger than solid steel.
Thomas Blake Glover (1838 - 1911) Born in Aberdeenshire, Glover went first to Shanghai in China and then to Nagasaki as agent of the Jardine Matheson trading company. He was awarded the highest "Order of the Rising Sun" for his contribution to modernising Japan, through industrialisation and smuggling Japanese students abroad to gain a better education. He may have provided the model for Puccini's 1904 Opera  "Madame Butterfly".
John Boyd Dunlop (1840 - 1921) Inventor. Developed the pneumatic tyre which was to improve the comfort of cyclists and later motorists. Dunlop did not invent the pneumatic tyre, it was actually invented by Robert William Thomson.
                       Sir Alexander Fleming (1881 - 1955) Born in Ayrshire, he discovered the world's first antibiotic drug - Penicillin. This was as a result of an "accident" where mould was allowed to grow on a bacterial culture. Fleming was knighted and received the Nobel Prize in 1944.
Sir Arthur Conan Doyle          . (1859 - 1930) Author. Creator of the detective Sherlock Holmes. He graduated from Edinburgh University in medicine and practised in Edinburgh, aboard ship and in the Boer  War.
Robert Dinwiddie (1693 - 1770) Born near Glasgow, and as the Lieutenant-Governor of Virginia insisted the colonies raise money for their own protection. Discovered George
 Sir James Dewar (1842 - 1923) Physicist and Chemist, born in Kincardine, Fife. Best known for his work with low-temperature phenomena. The inventor of the vacuum flask, he
was the first person to produce hydrogen in liquid form (1898) and to solidify it (1899).  He constructed a machine for producing liquid oxygen in quantity
Sir Hugh Dalrymple (Lord Drummore) (1700 - 1753)  Invented hollow-pipe drainage. This innovation allowed the drying of water-logged land, bringing large areas into agricultural production.
Captain James Cook (1728 – 1779) Second son to James Cook, a Scottish farm labourer from Ednam near Kelso, he rose from humble beginnings through the ranks of the merchant marine then the Royal Navy. Known for his expeditions and discoveries in the Pacific, he displayed a combination of seamanship, superior surveying and cartographic skills, physical courage and an ability to lead men in adverse conditions.